Please upload essays, bibliography, articles, review, summaries, presentations, research papers, thesis proposal, case studies, coursework, creative writing, and any other study resources. Aaron Beck pioneer in Cognitive Therapy. Suggested negative beliefs cause depression.
Abnormal psychology Abraham Maslow The field of psychology concerned with the assessment, treatment, and prevention of maladaptive behavior. Ageism Prejudice against the elderly and the resulting discrimination against them Aggression Any behavior intended to harm another person or thing.
Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play Absolute threshold The statistically determined minimum level of stimulation necessary to excite a perceptual system. Accommodation According to Piaget, the process by which existing mental structures and behaviors are modified to adapt to new experiences Albert Ellis pioneer in Rational-Emotive Therapy RETfocuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions 8.
Alfred Adler neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: Alfred Binet pioneer in intelligence IQ tests, designed a test to identify slow learners in need The first stage of the sexual response cycle is quizlet helpnot applicable in the U. Algorithm Procedure for solving a problem by implementing a set of rules over and over again until the solution is found. Alzheimer's Disease A chronic and progressive disorder of the brain that is the most common cause of degeneration dementia amnesia inability to remember information typically, all events within a specific periodusually due to physiological trauma 9.
Anal Stage Freud's second stage of personality development, from about age 2 to about age 3, during which children learn to control the immediate gratification they obtain through defecation and to become responsive to the demands of society.
Approachavoidance conflict Conflict that results from having to choose an alternative that has both attractive and unappealing aspects Archetypes In Jung's theory, the emotionally charged ideas and images that are rich in meaning and symbolism and exist within the collective unconscious. Androgynous Having both stereotypically male and stereotypically female characteristics Aristotle Ancient Greek philosopher.
Wrote "Peri Psyches" "About the Mind". Anna Freud child psychoanalysis; emphasized importance of the ego and its constant struggle Austrian-Jewish woman real name: Bertha Pappenheim diagnosed with hysteria, treated by Josef Breuer for severe cough, paralysis of the The first stage of the sexual response cycle is quizlet on the right side of her body, and disturbances of vision, hearing, and speech, as well as hallucinations and loss of consciousness. Her treatment is regarded as marking the beginning of psychoanalysis.
Activation of the central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, and the muscles and glands Assessment Process of evaluating individual differences among human beings by means of tests interviews, observations, and recordings of physiological.
Assimilation According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors association areas areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, rather, they are involved in higher mental processes such as thinking, planning, and communicating Attachment The strong emotional tie that a person feels toward special other persons in his or her life Attitudes Patterns of feelings and beliefs about other people, ideas, or objects that are based on a person's past experiences, shape his or her future behavior, and are evaluative in nature.
Attributions The process by which a person infers other people's motives or intensions by observing their behavior. Anxiety a generalized feeling of fear and apprehension that may be related a particular situation or object and is often accompanied by increased physiological arousal.
Appraisal the evaluation of the significance of a situation or event as it relates to a person's well-being Conflict that results from having to choose between two attractive alternatives Aversive counterconditioning A counterconditioning technique in which an aversive or noxious stimulus is paired with a stimulus with the undesirable behavior.
Avoidanceavoidance conflict Conflict that results from having to choose between two distasteful alternatives axon a single long, fiber that carries outgoing messages to other neurons, muscles, or glands axon terminal B.
Skinner terminal button, synaptic knob; the structure at the end of an excellent terminal branch; houses the synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitters behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons Babinski reflex Reflex in which a newborn fans out the toes when the sole of the foot is touched Backward search Heuristic procedure in which a problem solver works backward from the goal or end of a problem to the current position, in order to analyze the problem and reduce the steps needed to get from the current position to the goal.
Behavior therapy A therapy that is based on the application of learning principles to human behavior and that focuses on changing overt behaviors rather than on understanding subjective feelings, unconscious processes, or motivations; also known as behavior modification.
Biofeedback A process through which people receive information about the status of a physical system and use this feedback information to learn to control the activity of that system Bipolar disorder mood disorder originally know as manicdepressive disorder because it is characterized by behavior that vacillates between two extremes; mania and depression.
Bonding Special process of emotional attachment that may occur between parents and babies in the minutes and hours immediately after birth bottom-up processing information processing that begins at the sensory receptors and works up to perception Brainstorming Problem-solving technique that involves considering all possible solutions without making prior evaluative judgments. Brightness The lightness or darkness of reflected light, determined in large part by the light's intensity.
Broca's area located in left frontal lobe; controls production of speech Bulimia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating and a fear of not being able to stop eating followed by purging bulimia nervosa eating disorder characterized by pattern 9of eating binges followed by purging e. Benjamin Whorf language; his hypothesis is that language determines the way we think She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles.
Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse a descriptive study that includes an intensive study of one person and allows an intensive examination of a single case, usually chosen for its interesting or unique characteristics a highly detailed description of a single individual or a vent Catatonic type of schizophrenia Type of schizophrenia characterized either by displays of excited or violent motor activity or by stupor.
Circadian Rhythms Internally generated patterns of body functions, including hormonal signals, sleep, blood pressure, and temperature regulation, which have approximately a 24hour cycle and occur even in the absence of normal cues about whether it is day or night Clark Hull motivation theory, drive reduction; maintained that the goal of all motivated behavior is the reduction or alleviation of a drive state, mechanism through which reinforcement operates Classical Conditioning The first stage of the sexual response cycle is quizlet process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairing with a stimulus that normally elicits a response, comes to elicit a similar or even identical response; aka Pavlovian conditioning Clientcentered therapy An insight therapy, developed be Carl Rogers, that seeks to help people evaluate the world and themselves from their own perspective by providing them with a nondirective environment and unconditional positive regard; also known as person-centered therapy.
Cognitive Psychology The study if the overlapping fields of perception, learning, memory, and thought, with a special emphasis on how people attend to, acquire, transform, store, and retrieve knowledge. Collective Unconscious Jung's theory of a shared storehouse of primitive ideas and images that are inherited ideas and images, called archetypes, are emotionally charged and rich in meaning and symbolism Color Blindness The inability to perceive different hues.
Concordance rate The degree to which a condition or traits shared two or more individuals or groups Concrete operational stage Piaget's thrid stage of cognitive development lasting from approximately age 6 or 7 to age 11 or 12during which the child develops the ability to understand constant factors in the environment, rules, and higher-order symbolic systems Conditioned Response Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus Neutral stimulus that, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, begins to elicit a conditioned response Conditioning Systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned Conflict The emotional state or condition that arises when a person
The first stage of the sexual response cycle is quizlet choose between two or more competing motives, behaviors, or impulses Conformity People's tendency to change attitudes or behaviors so that they are consistent with those of other people or with social norms.
Consciousness Freud's level of mental life that consists of those experiences that we are aware of at any given time. Conservation Ability to recognize that objects can e transformed in some way, visually or phycially, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume Convergent thinking In problem solving, the process of narrowing down choices and alternatives to arrive at a suitable answer.
Coping Process by which a person takes some action to manage, master, tolerate, or reduce environmental or internal demands that cause or might cause stress and that tax the individual's inner resources Counterconditioning Process of reconditioning in which a person is taught a new, more adaptive response to a familiar stimulus. Creativity A feature of thought and problem solving that includes the tendency to generate or recognize ideas considered to be high-quality, original, novel, and appropriate.
Critical Period The time in to development of an organism when it is especially sensitive to certain environmental influences; outside of that period the same influences will have far less effect Crosssectional Studies A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ Crosssectional study A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ on an important dimension crystallized intelligence learned knowledge and skills such as vocabulary, which tends to increase with age Daniel Goleman emotional intelligence Dark adaptation The increase in sensitivity to light that occurs when the illumination level changes from high to low, causing chemicals in the rods and cones to regenerate and return to their inactive state.
Deindividuation The process by which individuals lose their self-awareness and distinctive personality in the context of a group, which may lead them to engage in antinormative behavior.
Delusions False beliefs that are The first stage of the sexual response cycle is quizlet with reality but are held in spite of evidence that disproves them.
Demand characteristics Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.
Dementia Impairment of mental functioning and global cognitive abilities in otherwise alert individuals, causing memory loss and related symptoms and typically having a progressive nature Denial Defense mechanism by which people refuse to accept reality.
Dependence The situation that occurs when the drug becomes part of the body's functioning and produces withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued dependent variable the variable in a controlled experiment that is expected to change due to the manipulation of the independent variable depressants AKA sedativehypnotics Any of a class of drugs that relax and calm a user and, in higher doses, induce sleep; also known as a depressant Depressive disorders general category of mood disorders in which people show extreme and persistent sadness, despair, and loss of interest in life's usual activities.
Decentration Process of changing from a totally selforiented point of view to one tha recognizes other people's feelings, ideas, and viewpoints Decision making Assessing and choosing among alternatives. Developmental Psychology The study of the lifelong, often age-related, processes of change in the physical, cognitive, moral, emotional, and social domains of functioning; such changes are rooted in biological mechanisms that are genetically controlled, as well as
The first stage of the sexual response cycle is quizlet social interactions Deviation IQ A standard IQ test score whose mean and standard deviation remain constant for all ages Dichromats People who can distinguish only two of the three basic colors.
Disorganized type of schizophrenia type of schizophrenia characterized by severely disturbed thought processes, frequent incoherence, disorganized behavior, and inappropriate affect.
Displacement Defense mechanism by which people divert sexual or aggressive feelings for one person onto another person. Dissociative amnesia Dissociative disorder characterized by the sudden and extensive inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature.
Dissociative disorders psychological disorders characterized by a sudden but temporary alteration in consciousness, identity, sensorimotor behavior, or memory Dissociative identity disorder dissociative disorder characterized by the existence within an individual of two or more distinct personalities, each of which is dominant at different times and directs the individual's behavior at those times; commonly known as multiple personality disorder.
Divergent thinking In problem solving, the process of widening the range of possibilities and expanding the options for solutions.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic formation in a double-helix; can replicate or reproduce itself; made of genes dominant genes member of a gene terror that controls the appearance of a certain trait Double bind a situation in which an individual is given two different and inconsistent messages. Dream A state of consciousness that occurs during sleep, usually accompanied by vivid visual, tactile, or auditory imagery. Dream analysis Psychoanalytic technique in which a patient's dreams are described in detail and interpreted so as to provide insight into the individual's unconscious motivations.
Drive an internal aroused condition that directs an organism to satisfy a physiological need Drive theory aka, drivereduction theory an explanation of behavior that assumes that an organism is motivated to act because of a need to attain, reestablish, or maintain some goal that helps with survival Drug Any chemical substance that, in small amounts, alters biological or cognitive processes or both Edward Thorndike behaviorism; Law of Effect-relationship between behavior and consequence Inability to perceive a situation or event except in relation to oneself; also know as selfcenteredness Universal Emotions based upon facial expressions ; Study Basics: Constants across culture in the face and emotion Theory suggesting that there are two routes to attitude change: Electroencephalogram EEG Graphical record of brain-wave activity obtained through electrodes placed on the scalp and forehead Electromagnetic Radiation The entire spectrum of waves initiated by the movement of charged particles.
Embryo The prenatal organism from the 5th through the 49th day after conception Emotion A subjective response, usually accompanied by a physiological change, which is interpreted n a particular way by the individual and often leads to a change in behavior emotional intelligence the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions Erik Erikson neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?
ESP the controversial claim that sensation can occur apart from sensory input Extinction classical conditioning The procedure of withholding the unconditioned stimulus and presenting the conditioned stimulus alone, which gradually reduces the probability of the conditioned response Extinction operant conditioning The process by which the probability of an organism's emitting a response is reduced when reinforcement no longer follows the response Extrinsic motivation Motivation supplied by rewards that come from the external environment Factor analysis Statistical procedure designed to discover the independent elements factors in any set of data family studies studies of hereditability on the assumption that if a gene influences a certain trait, close relatives should be more similar on that trait in distant relative Family therapy A type of therapy in which two or more people who are committed to one another's well-being are treated at once, in and effort to change the ways the interact.
Fetus The prenatal organism from the 8th week after conception until birth Genital Stage functional MRI fMRI shows brain activity at higher reolution The first stage of the sexual response cycle is quizlet PET scan when changes in oxygen concentration in neurons alters its magnetic qualities Freud's last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface at puberty and are often resolved during adolescence.
Gordon Allport trait theory of personality; 3 levels of traits: Grammar Grasping reflex Group The linguistic description of how a language functions, especially the rules and patterns used for generating appropriate and comprehensible sentences. Reflex that causes a newborn to grasp vigorously any The first stage of the sexual response cycle is quizlet touching the palm or fingers or placed in the hand Two or more individuals who are working with a common purpose or have some common goals, characteristics, or interests.
Group Polarization Shifts or exaggeration in group members' attitudes or behavior as a result of group discussion.